Limit to suite:[stretch][stretch-updates][stretch-backports][stretch-backports-sloppy][buster][buster-updates][buster-backports][bullseye][bullseye-updates][bullseye-backports][bookworm][sid][experimental]Limit to a architecture: [alpha] [amd64] [arm] [arm64] [armel] [armhf] [avr32] [hppa] [hurd-i386] [i386] [ia64] [kfreebsd-amd64] [kfreebsd-i386] [m68k] [mips] [mips64el] [mipsel] [powerpc] [powerpcspe] [ppc64] [ppc64el] [riscv64] [s390] [s390x] [sh4] [sparc] [sparc64] [x32] You have searched for packages that names contain crack in all suites, all sections, and all architectures.Found 49 matching packages.
Search in specific suite:[bionic][bionic-updates][bionic-backports][focal][focal-updates][focal-backports][jammy][jammy-updates][jammy-backports][kinetic][kinetic-updates][kinetic-backports][lunar]Limit search to a specific architecture: [i386] [amd64] [powerpc] [arm64] [armhf] [ppc64el] [s390x] You have searched for packages that names contain crack in all suites, all sections, and all architectures.Found 31 matching packages.
Based on the results of the simulation and aged material property measurements, a test vehicle was designed to evaluate selected substrate and underfill materials expected to be suitable for Grade 1 and 0 package reliability. The test vehicle included a 35×35-mm substrate and 15×15-mm die with 150-µm pitch copper pillar. Figure 3 shows the results of 175°C HTS on the underfill fillet. The high temperature exposure leads to oxidation and cracking in the underfill fillet. Figure 4 (a) shows that the high temperature exposure leads to IMC growth and solder voiding. Figure 4 (b) shows the results of HTS in a substrate with electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish which eliminates this issue.
Figure 5 shows the results from a previous test on a similar 35-mm substrate to Grade 0 conditions using the 150°C HTS condition. Neither of the failures observed for Grade 0 packages in 175°C were present at 150°C with no underfill cracking or solder voiding being detected . This suggests that the 1000-hour exposure at 175°C is much harsher than the alternative Grade 0 requirement of 2000 hours at 150°C.
In flip chip Chip Scale Packaging (fcCSP) packages, the primarily problem encountered when testing to Grade 0 and 2xGrade0 conditions relates to the oxidation of the epoxy molding compound (EMC) molded underfill which can result in cracking after extended HTS. Figure 6 shows an example of this failure with a crack extending from the surface of the EMC down to the substrate after 2xG0 HTS at 150°C.
To screen alternative EMC materials before requiring sample builds and reliability testing, samples of multiple materials were created and subjected to HTS at 150, 175, and 200°C. Aged properties were measured to identify which EMC materials had the highest likelihood of resisting cracking in HTS. Modulus, CTE, shrinkage, flexural strength, and the thickness of the oxidized EMC layer were measured at intervals up to the 2x Grade 0 HTS requirement.
A 12×12-mm test vehicle was designed for testing multiple EMCs selected for Grade 0 based on the aged material property measurements. EMCs were selected for their low shrinkage and oxidation behavior along with one high glass transition temperature EMC. Three EMC candidates were successfully tested to 2x Grade 0 conditions at both 150°C and 175°C with no EMC cracking and no failures detected in temperature cycling.
For the FCBGA packages, a robust G1 BOM has been developed. The same BOM meets Grade 0 temperature cycling requirements but eliminating the underfill cracking that occurs at 175°C HTS remains a challenge.
Shell eggs should not be frozen. If an egg accidentally freezes and the shell cracked during freezing, discard the egg. Keep any uncracked eggs frozen until needed; then thaw in the refrigerator. These can be hard cooked successfully but other uses may be limited. That's because freezing causes the yolk to become thick and syrupy so it will not flow like an unfrozen yolk or blend very well with the egg white or other ingredients.
Java Pattern Programs have always been one of the critical parts of the Java Interview questions. They look almost impossible to crack at a point, but these questions are practically based on mathematical logic and matrices' fundamentals. Hence Java Pattern Programs are greatly sought-after.
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Aircrack-ng can recover the WEP key once enough encrypted packets have been captured with airodump-ng. This part of the aircrack-ng suite determines the WEP key using two fundamental methods. The first method is via the PTW approach (Pyshkin, Tews, Weinmann). The default cracking method is PTW. This is done in two phases. In the first phase, aircrack-ng only uses ARP packets. If the key is not found, then it uses all the packets in the capture. Please remember that not all packets can be used for the PTW method. This Tutorial: Packets Supported for the PTW Attack page provides details. An important limitation is that the PTW attack currently can only crack 40 and 104 bit WEP keys. The main advantage of the PTW approach is that very few data packets are required to crack the WEP key.
SSE2, AVX, AVX2, and AVX512 support is included to dramatically speed up WPA/WPA2 key processing. With the exception of AVX512, all other instructions are built-in Aircrack-ng, and it will automatically select the fastest available for the CPU. For non-x86 CPUs, SIMD improvements are present as well.
By using a series of statistical tests called the FMS and Korek attacks, votes are accumulated for likely keys for each key byte of the secret WEP key. Different attacks have a different number of votes associated with them since the probability of each attack yielding the right answer varies mathematically. The more votes a particular potential key value accumulates, the more likely it is to be correct. For each key byte, the screen shows the likely secret key and the number of votes it has accumulated so far. Needless to say, the secret key with the largest number of votes is most likely correct but is not guaranteed. Aircrack-ng will subsequently test the key to confirm it.
Looking at an example will hopefully make this clearer. In the screenshot above, you can see, that at key byte 0 the byte 0xAE has collected some votes, 50 in this case. So, mathematically, it is more likely that the key starts with AE than with 11 (which is second on the same line) which is almost half as possible. That explains why the more data that is available, the greater the chances that aircrack-ng will determine the secret WEP key.
However the statistical approach can only take you so far. The idea is to get into the ball park with statistics then use brute force to finish the job. Aircrack-ng uses brute force on likely keys to actually determine the secret WEP key.
This is where the fudge factor comes in. Basically the fudge factor tells aircrack-ng how broadly to brute force. It is like throwing a ball into a field then telling somebody to ball is somewhere between 0 and 10 meters (0 and 30 feet) away. Versus saying the ball is somewhere between 0 and 100 meters (0 and 300 feet) away. The 100 meter scenario will take a lot longer to search then the 10 meter one but you are more likely to find the ball with the broader search. It is a trade off between the length of time and likelihood of finding the secret WEP key.
For example, if you tell aircrack-ng to use a fudge factor 2, it takes the votes of the most possible byte, and checks all other possibilities which are at least half as possible as this one on a brute force basis. The larger the fudge factor, the more possibilities aircrack-ng will try on a brute force basis. Keep in mind, that as the fudge factor gets larger, the number of secret keys to try goes up tremendously and consequently the elapsed time also increases. Therefore with more available data, the need to brute force, which is very CPU and time intensive, can be minimized.
For cracking WEP keys, a dictionary method is also included. For WEP, you may use either the statistical method described above or the dictionary method, not both at the same time. With the dictionary method, you first create a file with either ascii or hexadecimal keys. A single file can only contain one type, not a mix of both. This is then used as input to aircrack-ng and the program tests each key to determine if it is correct.
The techniques and the approach above do not work for WPA/WPA2 pre-shared keys. The only way to crack these pre-shared keys is via a dictionary attack. This capability is also included in aircrack-ng.
With pre-shared keys, the client and access point establish keying material to be used for their communication at the outset, when the client first associates with the access point. There is a four-way handshake between the client and access point. airodump-ng can capture this four-way handshake. Using input from a provided word list (dictionary), aircrack-ng duplicates the four-way handshake to determine if a particular entry in the word list matches the results the four-way handshake. If it does, then the pre-shared key has been successfully identified. 2b1af7f3a8