The analysis PC is configured with an Intel Xeon 6 core 2.4 GHz processor, 32 GB RAM, NVidia Quadro K4200 4GB video card, and dual 24" monitors. In addition to the standard free software including ImageJ, FIJI, and Cell Profiler, this PC is equipped with full versions of Nikon NIS Elements (including SIM reconstruction) and 3i Slidebook 6 software.
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This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties and tocopherol content in faveleira seed oil extracted using three methods (Bligh-Dyer, Soxhlet extractor, and cold-pressing). Each of the methods generated different yield percentages, with cold-pressing producing the least amount of oil. However, the cold-pressing method produced better quality oil with more desirable properties, including low acidity (1.56 ± 0.01% oleic acid) and low peroxide value (0.45 ± 0.09 mEq/1000 g). Cold-pressing resulted in higher quantities of tocopherols: 0.59 ± 0.12 mg/100 g of alpha-tocopherol and 20.97 ± 1.15 mg/100 g of beta + gamma-tocopherol. Faveleira seed oil, when extracted by cold-pressing, maintains better physicochemical quality, with the highest beta + gamma-tocopherol content.
Santos et al. (2017) identified and quantified the levels of alpha-, gamma- and delta-tocopherols in the extracted faveleira oil using a Soxhlet extractor (0.87, 15.09 and 3.15 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Vegetable oil can be obtained by various methods, which may influence some of its properties such as quality, oxidative stability, and other physicochemical properties ( Gharby et al., 2017 ). The Soxhlet method has high efficacy and is widely used. However, heating, exposure to oxygen for a long time, and use of toxic solvents during this method alter the composition of the oil and also degrades the quality ( Brum et al., 2009 ).
Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherol levels were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). 20 µL of the diluted solution described in section 2.3 was injected directly into a Shimadzu chromatograph consisting of an LC-20 AT pump coupled to an SPD-20A UV-VIS detector, reverse phase column Luna 5μm C18 (2) 100 ÅPhenomenex® (250 mm × 4.6 mm), and a computer with the LC solution software for data processing (Shimadzu, Quioto, Japan). The mobile phase used was 100% methanol in an isocratic system at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a wavelength of 292 nm. Ultraviolet detection used in the chromatographic method was standardized in accordance with the IUPAC standards and AOCS ( Cert et al., 2000 ). 2b1af7f3a8